The LDC and LDC rates are indicated under the abbreviations “LDCs” and “LLDCs” in the New Zealand tariff working paper. For more information, see Fact Sheet 8 (PDF 701 KB). Bureau, J C, R Chakir and J Gallezot (2007), “The exploitation of trade preferences for developing countries in the agri-food sector”, Journal of Agricultural Economics 58, 175-198. Tags: Exchange rates, free trade agreements, free trade agreements, rules of origin The South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Co-operation Agreement (SPARTECA) is a non-reciprocal trade agreement in which New Zealand (with Australia) offers preferential tariff treatment for certain products, which are the production or manufacture of the Pacific Islands Forum countries (known as “Forum Island Countries”). There is no preferential duty rate for New Zealand goods exported to a Forum Island Country. The creation of free trade areas is considered an exception to the most-favoured-nation principle within the World Trade Organization (WTO), since the preferences that parties to a free trade area grant exclusively to each other go beyond their accession obligations.  Although Article XXIV of the GATT allows WTO members to establish free trade areas or to adopt interim agreements necessary for their establishment, there are several conditions with respect to free trade areas or interim agreements that lead to the creation of free trade areas. Unlike a customs union, parties to a free trade agreement do not have common external tariffs, which means that they apply different tariffs and other directives to non-members.  Hakobyan, S (2015), “Accounting for underutilization of trade preference programs: U.S. generalized system of preferences,” Canadian Journal of Economics 48, 408-436. First, the customs duties and other rules which are maintained in each of the signatory parties to a free trade area and which are applicable at the time of the establishment of such a free trade area shall not be higher or more restrictive for trade with non-parties to such a free trade area than customs duties and other rules which existed in the same signatory parties before the establishment of the free trade area. In other words, the creation of a free trade area for preferential treatment among its members is legitimate under WTO law, but parties to a free trade area should not treat non-parties less favourably than before the establishment of the area. A second requirement of Article XXIV is that tariffs and other barriers to trade must essentially eliminate all trade within the free trade area.
 The trade agreement database provided by ITC`s Market Access Card. Given that hundreds of free trade agreements are currently in force and are under negotiation (around 800 according to ITC`s Rules of Origin Facilitator, including non-reciprocal trade agreements), it is important for businesses and policymakers to keep an eye on their status. . . .